Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

Nokia E65 – A Stylish Way To Work

Nokia's E series mobile phones have always been dubbed as enterprise solutions aimed at business users and professionals. Therefore, more than its designing aspects or its positioning, the company has embarked on the handset's functionality. As report has it, Microsoft Office documents editing software kit embedded in Eseries features notably better than Microsoft's very own applications for Windows Mobile. The Nokia E65 – a member of this family of business phone brings in the much needed style quotient to the other serious looking E series mobile phones.

The Nokia E65 is a slider that belongs to the 'slim is in' category, being one of Nokia's smallest sliders. This S60 platform based, Symbian OS v9.1 operated smartphone is available in flsy red and a more sober mocca solution. A large, TFT based QVGA display dominate the front fascia of this slider. The screen is capable of producing an astounding 16 million different hues across 240×320 pixels. Silver shaded keypads enhances the appeal further. A set of spaced out numeric keys and a 5D navigational button makes it very easy to use the Nokia E65 .

The handset's face lift has no way affected the level of functionality that an E series mobile phone is expected to exhibit. The Nokia E65 is loaded with all possible tools and technologies to aid businessmen and professionals, optimize their capabilities. From the most 'basic' feature like integrated hands free to high end connectivity options like WiFi and VoIP over WLAN find their place in the feature list. The Nokia E65 boasts of a full fledged Office Application and an already enhanced PIM that includes calender, to do list and printing. Its Push to Talk feature allows its user to use the mobile phone just like a walkie talkie over a cellular network.

The handset's almost unending feature list includes 3G, GPRS, EDGE, Bluetooth, Infrared, USB, a 2.0 megapixel camera and a Symbian media player.

Learn All About Italian Cooking In Italy

Do you wish to visit Italy? Do you live near or in Italy as a permanent resident? Are you a resident of place near to Italy? Do you dream of enhancing your cooking skills or learn how to cook?

Have you ever heard of Italian cooking classes? These Italian cooking classes would help you cook delicious and world famous Italian recipes with ease. If you are a tourist and is planning a trip to Italy then you should consider including Italian cooking classes in your trip. This would not only be an enhancing activity that is wonderful but would be beneficial for you all your life. What could be better than learning Italian cooking classes in Italy. There are people in Italy who are proficient in prepairing Italian food and can hence provide you with greatest techniques and tips.

If you live in or near Italy then you should not miss this wonderful opportunity. This could be your new hobby or interest that would benefit you all your life. If you dreamed to become gourmet Italian chef in any phase of your life then Italian cooking classes are the best solution for all your needs and requirements. You would get what you are searching for in Italian cooking classes!

If you are searching for information on Italian cooking classes then you can use internet for the same. Various websites or blogs are there on the internet to assist you in this task. You get various types of information that includes list reviews, student satisfaction and cost comparisons. Some also undertakes the responsibility to inform you of class curriculums. You can also view the information about the professors and their accomplishments or experience. In any of the case, you would be endeavored with informative activities or about the open house learning.

It is worth exploring your desires, interests and dreams. You cannot ascertain the benefits of attending Italian cooking classes in Italy. Some join these cooking classes to impress their friends or family by their extraordinary dishes while others take it as a passion of their life. There are people who just want to join a new activity to spend some time with their loved one or a friend and some take is seriously as their career. Whatever are your needs or requirements from Italian cooking classes you would definitely be able to accomplish that.

There are people who do not believe in online classes and wish to attend a class physically. For such people it would be an opportunity to meet wonderful people who also share the common interest for Italian cooking. This could be one of the best way to make friends of common interest. You can share your experiences and learn a lot from your colleagues or friends. If you are a novice just like them then you can easily struggle with recipes and adjust to the environment easily.

What Software Should I Use to Create My CD or DVD Artwork?

After recording your album, having it mastered and pressed, you head over to your disc duplication facility’s website to place your order. Reading up on the ordering process you notice that you have the option to have artwork printed on the disc face, and can also have tray card and insert artwork printed. This is a great idea, as it allows you to give your project a more professional look and feel. You can either hire a print designer, who will hopefully already know all of the proceeding information. Or you can have a go at it yourself, utilizing one of the many different graphics creation programs available. If you are choosing to create your own artwork, read on.

There are many different programs out there that can be used to create print artwork. One of the more popular programs is Adobe Illustrator. Adobe Illustrator is a vector based drawing program, available for both PC and Macintosh computers. You could also use, CorelDRAW, Paint Shop Pro, or even Adobe Photoshop. I will go into a little bit more detail about what the differences are between some of these programs later on in this article, and why some of them are better suited for print design. Here is a list of 3 terms you should be familiar with before starting your artwork project.

1. Raster Graphics

Raster graphics are also known as bitmap graphics. This form of graphics image is a data file or structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or blocks of color, on a computer monitor, or other display device. Think of a raster images as a checkers board, with each square (pixel) on the board displaying a different color. This collection of colored dots (pixels), in turn form the full picture. The quality of a raster image is determined by the total number of pixels (resolution), and the amount of information in each pixel. Raster graphics are practical for photographs and photo-realistic images because of the way that they display images. Pretty much all photos you will find on the internet, and all photos you take with your digital camera will be raster images. You may want to use photographs for your CD or DVD’s artwork, but you must mind a few certain things:

A. DPI –
I will go into this a bit further in the “DPI” section of this article. In a nutshell, any photograph that you would like to use for print must be 300 DPI (dots per inch) or higher. DPI refers to the density of pixel information in a photograph.

B. Color Mode –
There are two basic modes of color: RGB and CMYK. All you need to know really is that all print artwork must be created as a CMYK document, as this refers to the colors of ink that a printer uses to recreate your artwork. If you create your artwork as an RGB document, the printed document will most likely shift in color. For more info on this, please refer to my last article. What do you need to start a CD duplication project?

2. Vector Graphics

Also known as geometric modeling, this form of graphic uses geometrical primitives such as points, curves, and lines to represent images. Instead of displaying blocks of color to represent a photo vector images rely on set points to determine the outline of an object, using mathematical formulas to determine the curve of the lines between said set points. Vector graphics are ideal for simple or composite drawings that do not need to achieve photo-realism. I suggest that you used vector objects for all of your artwork’s areas that are not photos.

3. DPI

Dots per inch, (DPI) is the number of individual dots of ink a printer can produce within a one-inch space. This translates as, the higher the DPI, the sharper the image. Although, most commercial printers will tell you that anything over 300DPI would be considered “print-quality”. I recommend that you make sure that your artwork is at least 300DPI, with 600DPI being the optimal setting for your artwork.

After all this technical mumbo-jumbo, you’re probably scratching your head, still unsure of what program to use to create your artwork. The truth is you can use pretty much any graphics program to create your artwork, providing that you correctly set the DPI and color mode of your document. Personally, I usually use a combination of Adobe Photoshop & Illustrator to do all of my print artwork. I edit all bitmap images in Photoshop and create all of my vector content in Illustrator, combining the two in Illustrator. My advice is now that you have the basic background knowledge, experiment to figure out what works best for you!